By Mizuho Yabushita
The subject of this thesis is catalytic conversion of non-food, considerable, and renewable biomass reminiscent of cellulose and chitin to chemical compounds. In biorefinery, chemical transformation of polymers to priceless compounds has attracted all over the world curiosity for construction sustainable societies. First, the present scenario of this scorching examine quarter has been summarized good within the basic advent of the thesis, which is helping readers to get to grips with this subject. subsequent, the writer explains high-yielding creation of glucose from cellulose by utilizing an alkali-activated carbon as a catalyst, leading to a yield of glucose as excessive as 88%, that is one of many optimum yields ever pronounced. The characterization of carbon fabrics has indicated that vulnerable acid websites at the catalyst advertise the response, that is markedly various from stated catalytic platforms that require powerful acids. additionally, the 1st catalytic transformation of chitin with retention of N-acetyl teams has been built. the combo of mechanocatalytic hydrolysis and thermal solvolysis allows the construction of N-acetylated monomers in sturdy yields of as much as 70%. The catalytic platforms established during this thesis are specific within the fields of either chemistry and chemical engineering, and their excessive efficiencies can give a contribution to eco-friendly and sustainable chemistry sooner or later. in the meantime, mechanistic experiences in line with characterization, thermodynamics, kinetics, and version reactions have additionally been played to bare the jobs of catalysts in the course of the reactions. the implications should be valuable for readers to layout and strengthen new catalysts and response systems.
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Extra resources for A Study on Catalytic Conversion of Non-Food Biomass into Chemicals: Fusion of Chemical Sciences and Engineering
Walther T, Hensirisak P, Agblevor FA (2001) The influence of aeration and hemicellulosic sugars on xylitol production by Candida tropicalis. Bioresour Technol 76(3):213–220 14. Palm M, Zacchi G (2004) Separation of hemicellulosic oligomers from steam-treated spruce wood using gel ﬁltration. Sep Purif Technol 36(3):191–201 32 1 General Introduction 15. Ralph J, Lundquist K, Brunow G, Lu F, Kim H, Schatz PF, Marita JM, Hatﬁeld RD, Ralph SA, Christensen JH, Boerjan W (2004) Lignins: natural polymers from oxidative coupling of 4-hydroxyphenyl-propanoids.
Reaction systems using only supercritical water as both solvent and reactant are tested in laboratories and have produced glucose from cellulose in 24 % yield [124, 125]. However, a special reactor resisting harsh conditions is required. 2 Cellulose 15 Fig. 14 Proposed reaction mechanisms for glycosidic bond cleavage by cellulase enzymes: a inverting mechanism and b retaining mechanism temperature (673 K). Gaseous water is also used for the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose . Water vapor goes into interstices of cellulose molecules, weakens inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds, and hydrolyzes glycosidic bonds.
Sasaki M, Furukawa M, Minami K, Adschiri T, Arai K (2002) Kinetics and mechanism of cellobiose hydrolysis and retro-aldol condensation in subcritical and supercritical water. Ind Eng Chem Res 41(26):6642–6649 126. Harada T, Tokai Y, Kimura A, Ikeda S, Matsumura M (2014) Hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose to glucose in an autoclave containing both gaseous and liquid water. RSC Adv 4 (51):26838–26842 127. Rinaldi R, Palkovits R, Schüth F (2008) Depolymerization of cellulose using solid catalysts in ionic liquids.
A Study on Catalytic Conversion of Non-Food Biomass into Chemicals: Fusion of Chemical Sciences and Engineering by Mizuho Yabushita