By Weilie Zhou
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Experimental measurements  show that this form of the ET detector typically collects about 15–30% of the available SE signal. This relatively poor performance is the result of the fact that many of the SE escape through the bore of the lens and travel back up the column, and also because the asymmetric positioning of the detector only favors collection from half of the emitted SE distribution with a velocity component toward detector. In general this performance is quite satisfactory because of the way in which secondary electron images are interpreted .
The main drawback with this arrangement, also evident from Fig. 22a, is that the detector will be bombarded not only by the SE1 and SE2 secondary electrons from the specimen carrying the desired specimen information, but also by BSEs from the specimen, and by tertiary electrons (SE3) created by BSE impact on the lens and the chamber walls. Typically at least half of the signal into the detector is from direct backscatters or in the form of SE3 generated by scattering in the sample area. As a result the fraction of SE content from the sample is diluted, the signal-to-noise ratio is degraded, and image detail is reduced in contrast.
4. Freeze Drying An outline of processing procedures will now be considered for HRSEM recordings of biologically significant features in the 1–10 nm range. A tutorial on the pros and cons of freeze drying (FD) vs. critical point drying (CPD) was presented when these processes were first being scrutinized for biological accuracy in SEM structural studies . In summary, FD of fixed specimens usually involves addition of a cryoprotectant chemical (sucrose and DMSO) that reduces ice crystal formation but itself may interact with the sample.
Advanced scanning microscopy for nanotechnology techniques and applications by Weilie Zhou