Download e-book for kindle: Analyzing and Applying Current Transformers by Stanley E. Zocholl

By Stanley E. Zocholl

ISBN-10: 0972502629

ISBN-13: 9780972502627

Present transformers (CTs) are used during the global as present transducers for protecting relays in commercial, advertisement, and utlity purposes. regular rankings and alertness courses care for the steady-state sine wave habit of present transformers. regardless of using suggested ideas utilized to prevent brief saturation, it usually happens in yes serious relay purposes. examining and using present Transfomers is a reference e-book written for pros fascinated by the applying andf operation of CTs used as present transducers for enter to protecting relays in electricity platforms. This e-book offers transformer strategies that offer the basics to appreciate the non-linear features, accuracy rankings, and temporary habit of present transformers.

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A capital structure model should use proxies for debt market and equity market conditions to measure market timing effects or, alternatively, include time fixed-effects as controls. Newer studies weaken the explanatory power of the presented capital structure theories. Lemmon et al. (2008) find that capital structures are persistent and are primarily driven by time-invariant fixed-effects. Apparently, unobserved firm characteristics are of first order importance in explaining variations in capital structure in the cross-section.

All independent variables are lagged by one period. Standard errors are heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent. * indicates significance at the 10% level, ** indicates significance at the 5% level, *** indicates significance at the 1% level. 40 Corporate Governance and the Leverage of REITs: The Impact of the Advisor Structure Figure 1: Cost of Debt of Internally Advised vs. Externally Advised REITs 9,5% 9,0% 8,5% 8,0% 7,5% 7,0% 6,5% 6,0% 5,5% 5,0% Internally Advised Externally Advised Notes: Cost of debt is defined as annualized quarterly interest expenses divided by financial debt.

The time window with the highest significance is that from 1996Q3 to 1996Q4. 30 As a sensitivity check we compare externally advised REITs with fully integrated REITs that are both internally advised and internally managed. We also test the sensitivity of our models to a different specification of our time window that excludes the volatile quarters during the financial crisis. Our results do not materially change for these specifications. Corporate Governance and the Leverage of REITs: The Impact of the Advisor Structure 39 externally and internally advised REITs converge.

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Analyzing and Applying Current Transformers by Stanley E. Zocholl

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